Chapter 1 : Introduction



Introduction to Biology arrow_upward


  • Biology is the study of life and living things.
  • Biology focuses on the structure, function, growth, evolution and distribution of living organisms.
  • It includes:
    • The cellular basis of living things
    • The metabolic process
    • The genetic basis for inheritance

    5 Foundations of Biology arrow_upward



    Cell Theory

  • The cell is the basic unit of life.
  • All living organisms are composed of cells.
  • Gene Theory

  • Traits are inherited through gene transmission.
  • Genes are located in chromosomes and consist of DNA.
  • Thermodynamics

  • Energy is constant and energy transformation is not completely efficient.
  • The ultimate source of energy is the sun.
  • Some organisms (e.g. plants) have the capacity to capture the sun’s energy and use it via photosynthesis.
  • Organisms that cannot carry out photosynthesis must obtain nutrients from photosynthesizers.
  • Evolution

  • Any genetic change in a population is inherited over several generations.
  • Genetic changes may be small or large, noticeable or not noticeable.
  • Homeostasis

  • Organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.


  • Biology: Areas of Focus arrow_upward



    Microbiology

  • The study of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and viruses.
  • Cell Biology

  • The study of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells (focusing on animal and plant cells).
  • Developmental Biology

  • The study of how communities of cells form tissues and organs, and how they build organisms.
  • Anatomy and Physiology

  • Study of the structure and function of tissues and organs.
  • Zoology and Plant Biology

  • Study of organisms.
  • Ecology

  • The study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environments.


  • 5 Characteristics of Living Things arrow_upward



    Organization

  • As an organism lives, it maintains its organization by using different processes.
  • Acquisition

  • Living things must acquire nutrients so that they can be used to build and maintain the structures of an organism.
  • Response

  • An organism responds to stimuli by moving.
  • Reproduction

  • All living things are able to pass on their DNA.
  • Adaptations

  • All living things are able to compete with each other for food and space to survive.


  • The Stack of Life arrow_upward




    Atoms


    Molecules


    Cells


    Tissues


    Organs


    Organisms


    Populations


    Ecosystems



    What is Science? arrow_upward


  • Science is the foundation of facts.
  • It is a way of investigating the world in order to form general rules about why things happen the way they do.
  • Pure science is the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.
  • Applied science is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge.

  • Scientific Process arrow_upward


  • The steps of the scientific method make up an orderly way of gaining information about the biological world.
  • The basic steps for any scientific method are:
  • If the conclusion can be tested and confirmed repeatedly, it becomes a theory.
  • Science is empirical. It relies on observation and experience.


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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