Chapter 2 : Simple Rules of Spelling

Simple Rules of Spelling arrow_upward

  • Learning and using rules can improve your spelling.
    • Many of the rules apply to small number of words.
    • Almost every rule has exceptions.

    Vowels arrow_upward

  • A speech sound produced without diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs.
  • Includes the following:
    • Letter A or a
    • Letter E or e
    • Letter I or i
    • Letter O or o
    • Letter U or u

    Consonants arrow_upward

  • A speech sound produced with diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs.
  • Includes the following:
    • B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z

    Word that ends with the Sound of "v" arrow_upward

  • A word that ends with the sound of "v" is spelled with the letters "ve" at its end.
  • Example:
    • Above
    • Effective

    The Letter "i" Comes Before "e" Except After "c" arrow_upward

  • The letter "i" comes before "e" except after "c".
  • Example:
    • Believe
    • Field
    • Not receive
  • There are several exceptions to this rule:
    • Reign
    • Neighbor
    • Heir
    • Seize
    • Weird

    Magic of “E” arrow_upward

  • Drop the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.
  • Example:
    • Change: Changing
    • Note: Notable
    • Nerve: Nervous
    • Amuse + ing = Amusing
    • Creative + ity = Creativity
  • Keep the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.
  • Example:
    • Use: Useful
    • Love: Lovely
    • Measure + ment = Measurement
    • Definite + ly = Definitely

    Plurals arrow_upward

  • When a word ends with "y" preceded by a consonant, form the plural of the word by changing the "y" to "i" and adding "es".
  • Example:
    • Country: Countries
    • Lady: Ladies

    The Letter "q" in a Word arrow_upward

  • The letter "q" in a word is followed by "u".
  • Example:
    • Quick
    • Equation

    When Adding a Prefix arrow_upward

  • Do not change the spelling of a word when adding a prefix to it.
  • Example:
    • Move: remove
    • Angle: triangle
    • Spell: misspell

    One-Syllable Word Ends in a Vowel Followed by a Consonant arrow_upward

  • When a one-syllable word ends in a vowel followed by a consonant, double the final consonant when adding a suffix.
  • Example:
    • Top: Topped
    • Swim: Swimmer
    • Hit: Hitting

    IE/EI word arrow_upward

  • Often, i comes before e.
    • Example: belief, chief, review.
  • If the i and e follow c, they usually reverse.
    • Example: ceiling, conceive, receive.

    Y words arrow_upward

  • If you have consonant + final y, change the y to i when you add any suffix except one beginning with i:
    • Easy: Eas ily
    • Fifty: Fift ieth
    • Sky: Sk ies
    • Mercy + less = Merciless
  • If you have vowel + final y , keep the y when you add a suffix:
    • Monkey: Monke ys
    • Toy: To ys
    • Deploy + ed = Deployed

    ‘-us’ and ‘-ous’ arrow_upward

  • Nouns end in ‘-us’.
  • Adjectives end in ‘-ous’
  • Example:
    • Genius (Noun)
    • Tremendous (Adjective)

    '-ie' to '-y' arrow_upward

  • When a word ends in '-ie' change to '-y' before adding '-ing'
  • Example:
    • Die – Dying
    • Lie – Lying

    Plural Nouns arrow_upward

  • Most words add ‘s’ to the root forms without any change.
    • Barn: Barns
  • Words ending in -sh, -ch, -ss, -x, and -z, usually add -es to form the plural.
    • Bush: Bushes
  • Some words ending in -f change the -f to -v and add –es.
    • Calf: Calves
  • Some singular words have different words for their plural form
    • Man: Men
    • Mouse: Mice
    • Goose: Geese

    Suffixes arrow_upward

  • A letter or a syllable placed after a word to form a new word is called a suffix.
  • Many words are formed by adding -ed and -ing without any change.
    • Furnish - Furnished – Furnishing
  • Words ending in a silent –e, drop the -e before adding -ed and -ing
    • Move - Moved – Moving
  • Words ending in a consonant and –y, change the -y to -i before adding -ed, but do not make any change before adding –ing
    • Deny – Denied – Denying
  • Words ending in a vowel and –y, add -ed and -ing without making any other change
    • Delay – Delayed – Delaying

    Possessive Forms arrow_upward

  • Singular nouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and s.
    • Pilot – Pilot's
  • Plural nouns that end in s add only an apostrophe to form the possessive.
    • Aviators – Aviators'
  • Plural nouns that do not end in s add the apostrophe and s to form the possessive.
    • Men – Men's

    “When Two Vowels Go Walking, the First One Does the Talking”

  • When there are two vowels in a row, the first usually has a long sound and the second is silent.
    • Team
    • Coat
    • Wait

    Short and Long Vowels arrow_upward

  • To spell a short vowel sound, only one letter is needed.
    • Example:  combat
  • To spell a long sound usually add a second vowel.
    • Example: loose

    Pronounce arrow_upward

  • Make sure that you are pronouncing words correctly.
  • This can help you to avoid some spelling errors, such as “jewelery” instead of “jewelry”

  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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