author = {Makowski, Mi\l{}osz and H\"{a}drich, Torsten and Scheffczyk, Jan and Michels, Dominik L. and Pirk, S\"{o}ren and Pa\l{}ubicki, Wojtek},
title = {Synthetic Silviculture: Multi-Scale Modeling of Plant Ecosystems},
year = {2019},
issue_date = {July 2019},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
volume = {38},
number = {4},
issn = {0730-0301},
url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3306346.3323039},
doi = {10.1145/3306346.3323039},
abstract = {Due to the enormous amount of detail and the interplay of various biological phenomena,
modeling realistic ecosystems of trees and other plants is a challenging and open
problem. Previous research on modeling plant ecologies has focused on representations
to handle this complexity, mostly through geometric simplifications, such as points
or billboards. In this paper we describe a multi-scale method to design large-scale
ecosystems with individual plants that are realistically modeled and faithfully capture
biological features, such as growth, plant interactions, different types of tropism,
and the competition for resources. Our approach is based on leveraging inter- and
intra-plant self-similarities for efficiently modeling plant geometry. We focus on
the interactive design of plant ecosystems of up to 500K plants, while adhering to
biological priors known in forestry and botany research. The introduced parameter
space supports modeling properties of nine distinct plant ecologies while each plant
is represented as a 3D surface mesh. The capabilities of our framework are illustrated
through numerous models of forests, individual plants, and validations.},
journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
month = jul,
articleno = {131},
numpages = {14},
keywords = {self-organization, botanical tree models, natural phenomena, interactive modeling, self-similarity, ecosystem design, plant ecosystems, multi-scale, visual models of trees}