ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia), 2022

Procedural Urban Forestry

Till Niese1       Sören Pirk2       Matthias Albrecht1       Bedrich Benes3       Oliver Deussen2      

1University of Konstanz
2Google Research
3Purdue University


The placement of vegetation plays a central role in the realism of virtual scenes. We introduce procedural placement models (PPMs) for vegetation in urban layouts. PPMs are environmentally sensitive to city geometry and allow identifying plausible plant positions based on structural and functional zones in an urban layout. PPMs can either be directly used by defining their parameters or learned from satellite images and land register data. This allows us to populate urban landscapes with complex 3D vegetation and enhance existing approaches for generating urban landscapes. Our framework's effectiveness is shown through examples of large-scale city scenes and close-ups of individually grown tree models. We validate the results generated with our framework with a perceptual user study and its usability based on urban scene design sessions with expert users.





author     = {Niese, Till and Pirk, S\"{o}ren and Albrecht, Matthias 
              and Benes, Bedrich and Deussen, Oliver},
title      = {Procedural Urban Forestry},
year       = {2022},
issue_date = {April 2022},
publisher  = {Association for Computing Machinery},
address    = {New York, NY, USA},
volume     = {41},
number     = {2},
issn       = {0730-0301},
url        = {},
doi        = {10.1145/3502220},
journal    = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
month      = {mar},
articleno  = {20},
numpages   = {18},
keywords   = {Urban models, procedural generation, vegetation, urban forestry}