The Norman invasion of Ireland began in 1169, when William II invaded and conquered Dublin. In 1204, Henry III invaded and defeated the Normans at the Battle of Lincoln. This marked the end of the Anglo-Norman period and the start of the medieval era. In 1315, Edward I invaded and captured Waterford. He later returned it to the O'Brien family. In 1641, Oliver Cromwell invaded and took control of most of Ireland. His army destroyed much of what he could not take. In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded and occupied Ireland. He used Ireland as a staging ground for his campaign against England. In 1801, Britain annexed Ireland as part of the United Kingdom.